An angioplasty is a procedure used to open up arteries that are partially or totally blocked by a buildup of fats and cholesterol (plaque) inside an artery. This is usually done during a left heart catheterization or a peripheral arteriogram procedure where a small tube (similar to an IV) is inserted into the artery of the arm or groin. Then, a specialized catheter with a balloon on the tip is inserted through the IV and is passed to the area where the blocked artery is located. It is then inflated and opens up the artery so that blood flow is re-established.